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5.6.1 Explain why the introduction of mass production increased damage to the natural environment.
A historical perspective is important. Environmental considerations were not an issue in the 18th and 19th centuries. Little quantitative data was available, and all governments encouraged the growth of industry.
5.6.2 Outline the reasons for cleaning up manufacturing.
Reasons include promoting positive impacts, ensuring neutral impact or minimising negative impacts through conserving natural resources, reducing pollution and use of energy, and reducing wastage of energy and resources.
5.6.3 Outline that an initial response to reducing emission of pollutants is adding clean-up technologies to the end of the manufacturing process.
The addition of clean-up technologies to the end of the manufacturing process is termed the “end of- pipe” approach.
Other examples are:
5.6.4 Explain how legislation provides an impetus to manufacturers to clean up manufacturing processes.
5.6.5 State that the legislation can be policed by monitoring through the collection of quantitative data.
5.6.6 Explain that strategies for cleaning up manufacturing are mainly reactive, and that more radical approaches require a rethink of the whole system and may result in significant product and/or process modification or radically new technologies.
Many companies react to legislation or impending legislation by doing the minimum required. More radical approaches, for example, life cycle analysis, are proactive (see “Topic 3: Green design”).
5.6.7 Explain that targets for reducing pollution and waste from industry are agreed internationally, but not all industrial nations agree to the targets.
Explore the difficulties of stating targets against the background of ever-changing social, political and economic changes.
Bulleted list and italicised paragraphs are excerpted from Design Technology: guide. Cardiff Wales, UK: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2007.
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