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Food Security

A.12.1 Define poverty and human development index.

Deprivation of essential goods and services, for example, food, clothing, shelter and education, and a lack of sufficient income and wealth.
Human development index
A comparative measure of poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, childbirth and other factors for countries worldwide.

A.12.2 Explain the significance of poverty.

Poverty is the world’s biggest killer in its own right and contributes to disease and death through the greater likelihood of living in a poor environment.

A.12.3 Outline the importance of targeted policy interventions.

Agrarian reform policies and other targeted interventions are designed to address disease and enhance life expectancy and health of poor communities.

A.12.4 Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in relation to poverty and food security.

  • Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger this is the one.
  • Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
  • Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
  • Goal 5: Improve maternal health
  • Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
  • Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
  • UNDP
  • UN

A.12.5 Evaluate progress towards the MDGs.

By looking at at the chart about more than half of the goals and targets have not or will not be met. This could be due to financial, political, popluation and environmental issues hindering progress.

A.12.6 Explain how the human development index combines key poverty-related issues into a holistic measure that can be used at a country level to evaluate poverty alleviation strategies.

UNDP rankings of countries against the human development index.

  • It allows countries to identify areas that they need to improve
  • Then they can target that goal.
  • For example UAE ranks 135th for Building the capabilities of women, but 5th for Female literacy

A.12.7 Define food insecurity, undernourishment and undernutrition.

Food insecurity
Low levels of food intake, which can be transitory (as a result of crisis), seasonal or chronic (when it occurs on a continuing basis).
Chronic food insecurity in which food intake is insufficient to meet basic energy requirements on a continuing basis.
Result of prolonged low level of food intake and/or poor absorption of food consumed. Manifestations include wasting, stunting or underweight, reduced cognitive ability, poor health status and low productivity.

A.12.8 Describe undernourishment and undernutrition as distinct measures used to estimate the numbers of hungry people.

  • They are a quantitative measure

A.12.9 Explain how undernourishment and undernutrition are calculated.

FAO’s estimates of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially a measure of food deprivation based on the calculation of three key parameters for each country:

  1. the average amount of food available for human consumption per person,
  2. the level of inequality in access to that food
  3. the minimum number of calories required for an average person. (Excerpt from UNDP
  • It is mathematical equation.

Undernutrition is

  • A ratio calculated from people’s weight, height and age.
  • Ratios from these measurements indicate the outcome of inadequate food intake

A.12.10 List the criteria for food security.

Sufficient food is available, supplies are relatively stable and those in need of food can obtain it.

A.12.11 Identify the global extent of undernourishment.

800 million people in developing countries and approximately 34 million people in developed countries are chronically undernourished.

A.12.12 Explain the importance of local, national, international and global strategies in combating food insecurity.

  • They all need to work on different levels in order to relieve food insecurity

A.12.13 Discuss the ethical issues surrounding the development of a global policy concerning food security.

A.12.14 Explain the role of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) in combating food insecurity.

  • FAO founded in 1945 under the auspice of the United Nations to defeat hunger.
  • A neutral forum for developed and developing countries to negotiate agreements and debate policy.
  • a source of knowledge and information.
  • It aims to help developing countries modernise and improve agriculture,

A.12.15 Evaluate the progress of the work of the FAO in relation to food security.


Bulleted list and italicised paragraphs are excerpted from Design Technology: guide. Cardiff Wales, UK: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2007.

Images are clickable links to its location.

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Page last modified on November 22, 2011, at 03:56 AM