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5.1.1 Define manufacturing technique
A specific manufacturing term, sometimes relating to one material group only
5.1.2 Outline the techniques of moulding, casting, weaving, fusing, stitching, cutting, machining, abrading, using adhesives and using fasteners.
The principles of each technique are required.
Wikipedia: " Moulding is the process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a mould."
Moulding involves filling a hollow in a mould with a material such as metals, plastics and glass at the point of being molten. It enables the manufactures to produce any shape with many materials easily and efficiently.
Types of moulding are listed, courtesy of www.wikipedia.org:
Casting is the manufacturing process of pouring molten material (usually metal) into a mould. There are many types of casting which fall under two main categories, expendable mould casting and non-expendable mould casting. Casting can be done with any material that can be made into a liquid state; this includes resin, plaster, plastic, and nearly all metals. Casting is used for regular manufacture, such as piping, metal frames, furniture etc. and also for artistic figures, a figure is made of clay or wax and a mould is made around it out of clay or plaster, after that the mould can be stored indefinitely until the artist can find a buyer. Once the artist finds a buyer, bronze (for example) is poured into the mould and a bronze statue is made.
Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. In general, weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft. The warp are held taut and in parallel order, typically by means of a loom, though some forms of weaving may use other methods.
Fusing is a manufacturing technique used to join similar materials together by melting them at high temperatures and usually adding a small amount of a similar material.
The fusing manufacturing technique is mainly used for metals, glass and some types plastics.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2006 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Stitching is sewing when cloth, leather, furs, bark, or other materials, is sewn using needle and thread. It dates back to Palaeolithic times (30,000 BC). Its use is very popular and nearly universal among human populations. Sewing predates the weaving of cloth. Sewing is the foundation for many needle arts and crafts, such as appliqué, canvas work, and patchwork.
Sewing is used primarily to produce clothing and household furnishings such as:
It is also used for
Sewing done by machines:
Cutting: The separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force.
Cutting can be applied as a process in order to divide materials such as wood or glass. An example where cutting is really useful would be if a board of wood is too large, it can be cut with a cutting tool and any extra wood is disposed of. Another example would be the cutting of glass for window panes.
People cut things daily without even noticing it. In kindergarten, when your little brother or sister are making paper planes they cut some paper. In order to MAKE the paper, a tree had to be cut down. Everything is the size and proportion that it is because it was cut down to be that size; to be accessible to humans.
Examples of cutting tools:
Diamonds can be used as a cutting tool. They are limited in application because of the size that diamonds come in and the high costs. They are usually used on very hard materials to create a clean soft cut. Used at very high speed
Machining is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and drill presses are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. Machining is a part of the manufacture of almost all metal products. It is not uncommon for other materials to be machined.
The three principal machining processes are classified as turning, drilling and milling. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping, planing, broaching and sawing.
Description of the process: To wear down or rub away by friction.
Materials suitable: Abrasion can be used in the context of sanding wood, and various other materials using specifically designed abrasion paper or cloth, which is a sheet of paper or wax, with a layer of sand, to be able to successfully wear down anything.
Adhesive refers to the method of connecting two items using a glue, or other substance merging the two products together. Two or more parts will be prepared for assembly. One part receives a layer of an adhesive substance, and the second part will be placed next to the object with the sides touching. Once the adhesive dries, the products have been formed into one object, with the adhesive between the two holding them together.
An adhesive substance
The use of fasteners stands for using certain connecting materials/devices (such as screws, buttons, nails, nut bolts...) to bind two or more dissimilar materials together. Fastens can be used to close objects such as a bag or a box or even an envelope.
5.1.3 Describe how the techniques in 5.1.2 relate to different materials.
For example, casting relates to metals, plastics, food, ceramics and some composites, but not to timber or textiles.
5.1.4 Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the techniques to manufacture products.
Refer to the viewpoints of the manufacturer and the user.
Bulleted list and italicised paragraphs are excerpted from Design Technology: guide. Cardiff Wales, UK: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2007.
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