Apr 23, 2014

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Mapping

GPS Mapping

There are many types of mapping, such as the GPS (Global Positioning System). "The GPS is a satellite based navigation system providing accuracy usable for side scan sonar surveys on a worldwide basis. GPS has become a universal, reliable positioning system. Inherent errors in GPS (implemented by the Department of Defense) create inaccuracies of more than 100 meters. Differential base stations can reduce these errors to less than two meters but are time consuming to survey-in."

This type of mapping is concerned with the landscape and locations of buildings, mountains, rivers, etc.

Gene mapping

Gene mapping means determining the relative positions of genes on a chromosome and the distance between them. It is a completely different type of mapping than GPS. Gene mapping is the creation of a genetic map assigning DNA fragments to chromosomes.

IT systems involved in GPS and Gene mapping

  • Special Software
  • Hardware(GPS receiver)
  • Satellites

Advantages:

  • Accurate
  • Easy to store
  • Can be viewed all around the world
  • Can be viewed at all GPS's/computers
  • Breaks down distance barriers-easy to transfer data

Disadvantages:

  • If data are input incorrectly, the entire design becomes unreliable
  • Time consuming to create
  • High technology needed
  • Reliability on technology
  • Costly

Social and Ethical Issues:

1. Reliability

Operation of the hardware and design of the software. Correspondence of data with the real world. Data have to be updated, otherwise they become outdated, therefore unreliable.

2. Integrity of Data

The correspondence and creation of data. If someone changes the data in the software, the whole design would become unreliable.

3. Security

Restricted access to machines. The GPS is a very valued system, which can be easily abused if being stolen by the terrorists.

4. Privacy and Anonymity

Especially in the Gene mapping the privacy and anonymity is important. It is a part of an electronical health record in many cases.

7. Control

IT improves accuracy,speed and reliability.

10. People and Machines

Both designs are very effective. Technology extends human faculties and makes work easier thank to the IT systems involved. Memory, accuracy and speed are great advantages of both designs.

References:

http://www.instituteformarineacoustics.org/SonarPrimer/data/gloss_6c.htm

More information:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/science96/

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/ThreePointCross.html

http://www.bizrate.com/globalpositioningsystemsgps/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System

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