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There are many types of mapping, such as the GPS (Global Positioning System). "The GPS is a satellite based navigation system providing accuracy usable for side scan sonar surveys on a worldwide basis. GPS has become a universal, reliable positioning system. Inherent errors in GPS (implemented by the Department of Defense) create inaccuracies of more than 100 meters. Differential base stations can reduce these errors to less than two meters but are time consuming to survey-in."
This type of mapping is concerned with the landscape and locations of buildings, mountains, rivers, etc.
Gene mapping means determining the relative positions of genes on a chromosome and the distance between them. It is a completely different type of mapping than GPS. Gene mapping is the creation of a genetic map assigning DNA fragments to chromosomes.
IT systems involved in GPS and Gene mapping
Social and Ethical Issues:
Operation of the hardware and design of the software. Correspondence of data with the real world. Data have to be updated, otherwise they become outdated, therefore unreliable.
2. Integrity of Data
The correspondence and creation of data. If someone changes the data in the software, the whole design would become unreliable.
Restricted access to machines. The GPS is a very valued system, which can be easily abused if being stolen by the terrorists.
4. Privacy and Anonymity
Especially in the Gene mapping the privacy and anonymity is important. It is a part of an electronical health record in many cases.
IT improves accuracy,speed and reliability.
10. People and Machines
Both designs are very effective. Technology extends human faculties and makes work easier thank to the IT systems involved. Memory, accuracy and speed are great advantages of both designs.